Simulate Colour-Blindness

convert(x, mode)



A palette function that when called with a single integer argument (the number of levels) returns a vector of colors (see colour()).


A character string giving the colorblind vision to be used. It must be one of "deuteranopia", "protanopia", "tritanopia" or "achromatopsia". Any unambiguous substring can be given.


A palette function that returns a vector of anomalized colours. All the attributes of the initial palette function are inherited, with a supplementary attribute "mode" giving the corresponding colour-blind vision.


Brettel, H., Viénot, F. and Mollon, J. D. (1997). Computerized Simulation of Color Appearance for Dichromats. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 14(10), p. 2647-2655. doi: 10.1364/JOSAA.14.002647 .

Tol, P. (2018). Colour Schemes. SRON. Technical Note No. SRON/EPS/TN/09-002, issue 3.1. URL:

Viénot, F., Brettel, H. and Mollon, J. D. (1999). Digital Video Colourmaps for Checking the Legibility of Displays by Dichromats. Color Research & Application, 24(4), p. 243-52. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1520-6378(199908)24:4<243::AID-COL5>3.0.CO;2-3 .

See also

Other diagnostic tools: compare(), plot()


N. Frerebeau


# Trichromat pal <- colour("bright") plot_scheme(pal(7))
# Deuteranopia deu <- convert(pal, mode = "deuteranopia") plot_scheme(deu(7))
# Protanopia pro <- convert(pal, mode = "protanopia") plot_scheme(pro(7))
# Tritanopia tri <- convert(pal, mode = "tritanopia") plot_scheme(tri(7))
# Achromatopsia ach <- convert(pal, mode = "achromatopsia") plot_scheme(ach(7))