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Similarity

Usage

similarity(object, ...)

# S4 method for CountMatrix
similarity(
  object,
  method = c("brainerd", "bray", "jaccard", "morisita", "sorenson", "binomial"),
  ...
)

# S4 method for IncidenceMatrix
similarity(object, method = c("jaccard", "sorenson"), ...)

Arguments

object

A \(m \times p\) matrix of count data.

...

Further arguments to be passed to internal methods.

method

A character string specifying the method to be used (see details). Any unambiguous substring can be given.

Value

similarity() returns a stats::dist object.

Details

\(\beta\)-diversity can be measured by addressing similarity between pairs of samples/cases (Brainerd-Robinson, Jaccard, Morisita-Horn and Sorenson indices). Similarity between pairs of taxa/types can be measured by assessing the degree of co-occurrence (binomial co-occurrence).

Jaccard, Morisita-Horn and Sorenson indices provide a scale of similarity from \(0\)-\(1\) where \(1\) is perfect similarity and \(0\) is no similarity. The Brainerd-Robinson index is scaled between \(0\) and \(200\). The Binomial co-occurrence assessment approximates a Z-score.

binomial

Binomial co-occurrence assessment. This assesses the degree of co-occurrence between taxa/types within a dataset. The strongest associations are shown by large positive numbers, the strongest segregations by large negative numbers.

brainerd

Brainerd-Robinson quantitative index. This is a city-block metric of similarity between pairs of samples/cases.

bray

Sorenson quantitative index (Bray and Curtis modified version of the Sorenson index).

jaccard

Jaccard qualitative index.

morisita

Morisita-Horn quantitative index.

sorenson

Sorenson qualitative index.

References

Brainerd, G. W. (1951). The Place of Chronological Ordering in Archaeological Analysis. American Antiquity, 16(04), 301-313. doi: 10.2307/276979 .

Bray, J. R. & Curtis, J. T. (1957). An Ordination of the Upland Forest Communities of Southern Wisconsin. Ecological Monographs, 27(4), 325-349. doi: 10.2307/1942268 .

Kintigh, K. (2006). Ceramic Dating and Type Associations. In J. Hantman and R. Most (eds.), Managing Archaeological Data: Essays in Honor of Sylvia W. Gaines. Anthropological Research Paper, 57. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University, p. 17-26.

Magurran, A. E. (1988). Ecological Diversity and its Measurement. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. doi: 10.1007/978-94-015-7358-0 .

Robinson, W. S. (1951). A Method for Chronologically Ordering Archaeological Deposits. American Antiquity, 16(04), 293-301. doi: 10.2307/276978 .

See also

Author

N. Frerebeau

Examples

## Data from Huntley 2008
ceramics <- CountMatrix(
  data = c(16, 9, 3, 0, 1,
           13, 3, 2, 0, 0,
           9, 5, 2, 5, 0,
           14, 12, 3, 0, 0,
           0, 26, 4, 0, 0,
           1, 26, 4, 0, 0,
           0, 11, 3, 13, 0,
           0, 0, 17, 0, 16,
           0, 0, 18, 0, 14),
  nrow = 9, byrow = TRUE
)
rownames(ceramics) <- c("Atsinna", "Cienega", "Mirabal", "PdMuertos",
                        "Hesh", "LowPesc", "BoxS", "Ojo Bon", "S170")
colnames(ceramics) <- c("DLH-1", "DLH-2a", "DLH-2b", "DLH-2c", "DLH-4")

## Brainerd-Robinson measure (count data)
C <- similarity(ceramics, "brainerd")
plot_spot(C)


## Data from Magurran 1988, p. 166
data("birds", package = "folio")

## Plot spot diagram
birds <- as_count(birds)

## Jaccard measure (presence/absence data)
similarity(birds, "jaccard") # 0.46
#>                   Spotted ratcatcher Killer quail Riff raff   Slyneck Oat crake
#> Killer quail               0.6666667                                           
#> Riff raff                  0.6666667    1.0000000                              
#> Slyneck                    0.6666667    1.0000000 1.0000000                    
#> Oat crake                  0.6666667    1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000          
#> Cold start                 0.6666667    1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Big dipper                 0.6666667    1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Shylark                    0.6666667    1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Startling                  0.6666667    1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Deadwing                   0.6666667    1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Crook                      0.6666667    1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Nightcap                   0.6666667    1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Golden lover               0.6666667    1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Baby bunting               0.6666667    1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Mute swain                 0.6666667    1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Chinese kite               1.0000000    0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667
#> Brownie owl                0.6666667    1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Hen hurrier                0.6666667    1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Grrrr falcon               1.0000000    0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667
#> Gosh hawk                  0.6666667    1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Cough                      1.0000000    0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667
#> Flapwing                   0.6666667    1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Not                        1.0000000    0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667
#> Bar-tailed nitwit          1.0000000    0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667
#> Snoop                      1.0000000    0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667
#> Funny tern                 0.6666667    1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Cut throat                 1.0000000    0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667
#> Throttled dove             1.0000000    0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667
#> Ribbon                     0.6666667    1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Backchat                   0.6666667    1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Missile thrush             0.6666667    1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Cold tit                   0.6666667    1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Twit                       0.6666667    1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Yellow spanner             0.6666667    1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Born howl                  0.6666667    1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#>                   Cold start Big dipper   Shylark Startling  Deadwing     Crook
#> Killer quail                                                                   
#> Riff raff                                                                      
#> Slyneck                                                                        
#> Oat crake                                                                      
#> Cold start                                                                     
#> Big dipper         1.0000000                                                   
#> Shylark            1.0000000  1.0000000                                        
#> Startling          1.0000000  1.0000000 1.0000000                              
#> Deadwing           1.0000000  1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000                    
#> Crook              1.0000000  1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000          
#> Nightcap           1.0000000  1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Golden lover       1.0000000  1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Baby bunting       1.0000000  1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Mute swain         1.0000000  1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Chinese kite       0.6666667  0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667
#> Brownie owl        1.0000000  1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Hen hurrier        1.0000000  1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Grrrr falcon       0.6666667  0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667
#> Gosh hawk          1.0000000  1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Cough              0.6666667  0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667
#> Flapwing           1.0000000  1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Not                0.6666667  0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667
#> Bar-tailed nitwit  0.6666667  0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667
#> Snoop              0.6666667  0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667
#> Funny tern         1.0000000  1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Cut throat         0.6666667  0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667
#> Throttled dove     0.6666667  0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667 0.6666667
#> Ribbon             1.0000000  1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Backchat           1.0000000  1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Missile thrush     1.0000000  1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Cold tit           1.0000000  1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Twit               1.0000000  1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Yellow spanner     1.0000000  1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#> Born howl          1.0000000  1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000
#>                    Nightcap Golden lover Baby bunting Mute swain Chinese kite
#> Killer quail                                                                 
#> Riff raff                                                                    
#> Slyneck                                                                      
#> Oat crake                                                                    
#> Cold start                                                                   
#> Big dipper                                                                   
#> Shylark                                                                      
#> Startling                                                                    
#> Deadwing                                                                     
#> Crook                                                                        
#> Nightcap                                                                     
#> Golden lover      1.0000000                                                  
#> Baby bunting      1.0000000    1.0000000                                     
#> Mute swain        1.0000000    1.0000000    1.0000000                        
#> Chinese kite      0.6666667    0.6666667    0.6666667  0.6666667             
#> Brownie owl       1.0000000    1.0000000    1.0000000  1.0000000    0.6666667
#> Hen hurrier       1.0000000    1.0000000    1.0000000  1.0000000    0.6666667
#> Grrrr falcon      0.6666667    0.6666667    0.6666667  0.6666667    1.0000000
#> Gosh hawk         1.0000000    1.0000000    1.0000000  1.0000000    0.6666667
#> Cough             0.6666667    0.6666667    0.6666667  0.6666667    1.0000000
#> Flapwing          1.0000000    1.0000000    1.0000000  1.0000000    0.6666667
#> Not               0.6666667    0.6666667    0.6666667  0.6666667    1.0000000
#> Bar-tailed nitwit 0.6666667    0.6666667    0.6666667  0.6666667    1.0000000
#> Snoop             0.6666667    0.6666667    0.6666667  0.6666667    1.0000000
#> Funny tern        1.0000000    1.0000000    1.0000000  1.0000000    0.6666667
#> Cut throat        0.6666667    0.6666667    0.6666667  0.6666667    1.0000000
#> Throttled dove    0.6666667    0.6666667    0.6666667  0.6666667    1.0000000
#> Ribbon            1.0000000    1.0000000    1.0000000  1.0000000    0.6666667
#> Backchat          1.0000000    1.0000000    1.0000000  1.0000000    0.6666667
#> Missile thrush    1.0000000    1.0000000    1.0000000  1.0000000    0.6666667
#> Cold tit          1.0000000    1.0000000    1.0000000  1.0000000    0.6666667
#> Twit              1.0000000    1.0000000    1.0000000  1.0000000    0.6666667
#> Yellow spanner    1.0000000    1.0000000    1.0000000  1.0000000    0.6666667
#> Born howl         1.0000000    1.0000000    1.0000000  1.0000000    0.6666667
#>                   Brownie owl Hen hurrier Grrrr falcon Gosh hawk     Cough
#> Killer quail                                                              
#> Riff raff                                                                 
#> Slyneck                                                                   
#> Oat crake                                                                 
#> Cold start                                                                
#> Big dipper                                                                
#> Shylark                                                                   
#> Startling                                                                 
#> Deadwing                                                                  
#> Crook                                                                     
#> Nightcap                                                                  
#> Golden lover                                                              
#> Baby bunting                                                              
#> Mute swain                                                                
#> Chinese kite                                                              
#> Brownie owl                                                               
#> Hen hurrier         1.0000000                                             
#> Grrrr falcon        0.6666667   0.6666667                                 
#> Gosh hawk           1.0000000   1.0000000    0.6666667                    
#> Cough               0.6666667   0.6666667    1.0000000 0.6666667          
#> Flapwing            1.0000000   1.0000000    0.6666667 1.0000000 0.6666667
#> Not                 0.6666667   0.6666667    1.0000000 0.6666667 1.0000000
#> Bar-tailed nitwit   0.6666667   0.6666667    1.0000000 0.6666667 1.0000000
#> Snoop               0.6666667   0.6666667    1.0000000 0.6666667 1.0000000
#> Funny tern          1.0000000   1.0000000    0.6666667 1.0000000 0.6666667
#> Cut throat          0.6666667   0.6666667    1.0000000 0.6666667 1.0000000
#> Throttled dove      0.6666667   0.6666667    1.0000000 0.6666667 1.0000000
#> Ribbon              1.0000000   1.0000000    0.6666667 1.0000000 0.6666667
#> Backchat            1.0000000   1.0000000    0.6666667 1.0000000 0.6666667
#> Missile thrush      1.0000000   1.0000000    0.6666667 1.0000000 0.6666667
#> Cold tit            1.0000000   1.0000000    0.6666667 1.0000000 0.6666667
#> Twit                1.0000000   1.0000000    0.6666667 1.0000000 0.6666667
#> Yellow spanner      1.0000000   1.0000000    0.6666667 1.0000000 0.6666667
#> Born howl           1.0000000   1.0000000    0.6666667 1.0000000 0.6666667
#>                    Flapwing       Not Bar-tailed nitwit     Snoop Funny tern
#> Killer quail                                                                
#> Riff raff                                                                   
#> Slyneck                                                                     
#> Oat crake                                                                   
#> Cold start                                                                  
#> Big dipper                                                                  
#> Shylark                                                                     
#> Startling                                                                   
#> Deadwing                                                                    
#> Crook                                                                       
#> Nightcap                                                                    
#> Golden lover                                                                
#> Baby bunting                                                                
#> Mute swain                                                                  
#> Chinese kite                                                                
#> Brownie owl                                                                 
#> Hen hurrier                                                                 
#> Grrrr falcon                                                                
#> Gosh hawk                                                                   
#> Cough                                                                       
#> Flapwing                                                                    
#> Not               0.6666667                                                 
#> Bar-tailed nitwit 0.6666667 1.0000000                                       
#> Snoop             0.6666667 1.0000000         1.0000000                     
#> Funny tern        1.0000000 0.6666667         0.6666667 0.6666667           
#> Cut throat        0.6666667 1.0000000         1.0000000 1.0000000  0.6666667
#> Throttled dove    0.6666667 1.0000000         1.0000000 1.0000000  0.6666667
#> Ribbon            1.0000000 0.6666667         0.6666667 0.6666667  1.0000000
#> Backchat          1.0000000 0.6666667         0.6666667 0.6666667  1.0000000
#> Missile thrush    1.0000000 0.6666667         0.6666667 0.6666667  1.0000000
#> Cold tit          1.0000000 0.6666667         0.6666667 0.6666667  1.0000000
#> Twit              1.0000000 0.6666667         0.6666667 0.6666667  1.0000000
#> Yellow spanner    1.0000000 0.6666667         0.6666667 0.6666667  1.0000000
#> Born howl         1.0000000 0.6666667         0.6666667 0.6666667  1.0000000
#>                   Cut throat Throttled dove    Ribbon  Backchat Missile thrush
#> Killer quail                                                                  
#> Riff raff                                                                     
#> Slyneck                                                                       
#> Oat crake                                                                     
#> Cold start                                                                    
#> Big dipper                                                                    
#> Shylark                                                                       
#> Startling                                                                     
#> Deadwing                                                                      
#> Crook                                                                         
#> Nightcap                                                                      
#> Golden lover                                                                  
#> Baby bunting                                                                  
#> Mute swain                                                                    
#> Chinese kite                                                                  
#> Brownie owl                                                                   
#> Hen hurrier                                                                   
#> Grrrr falcon                                                                  
#> Gosh hawk                                                                     
#> Cough                                                                         
#> Flapwing                                                                      
#> Not                                                                           
#> Bar-tailed nitwit                                                             
#> Snoop                                                                         
#> Funny tern                                                                    
#> Cut throat                                                                    
#> Throttled dove     1.0000000                                                  
#> Ribbon             0.6666667      0.6666667                                   
#> Backchat           0.6666667      0.6666667 1.0000000                         
#> Missile thrush     0.6666667      0.6666667 1.0000000 1.0000000               
#> Cold tit           0.6666667      0.6666667 1.0000000 1.0000000      1.0000000
#> Twit               0.6666667      0.6666667 1.0000000 1.0000000      1.0000000
#> Yellow spanner     0.6666667      0.6666667 1.0000000 1.0000000      1.0000000
#> Born howl          0.6666667      0.6666667 1.0000000 1.0000000      1.0000000
#>                    Cold tit      Twit Yellow spanner
#> Killer quail                                        
#> Riff raff                                           
#> Slyneck                                             
#> Oat crake                                           
#> Cold start                                          
#> Big dipper                                          
#> Shylark                                             
#> Startling                                           
#> Deadwing                                            
#> Crook                                               
#> Nightcap                                            
#> Golden lover                                        
#> Baby bunting                                        
#> Mute swain                                          
#> Chinese kite                                        
#> Brownie owl                                         
#> Hen hurrier                                         
#> Grrrr falcon                                        
#> Gosh hawk                                           
#> Cough                                               
#> Flapwing                                            
#> Not                                                 
#> Bar-tailed nitwit                                   
#> Snoop                                               
#> Funny tern                                          
#> Cut throat                                          
#> Throttled dove                                      
#> Ribbon                                              
#> Backchat                                            
#> Missile thrush                                      
#> Cold tit                                            
#> Twit              1.0000000                         
#> Yellow spanner    1.0000000 1.0000000               
#> Born howl         1.0000000 1.0000000      1.0000000

## Sorenson measure (presence/absence data)
similarity(birds, "sorenson") # 0.63
#>                   Spotted ratcatcher Killer quail Riff raff Slyneck Oat crake
#> Killer quail                     0.8                                         
#> Riff raff                        0.8          1.0                            
#> Slyneck                          0.8          1.0       1.0                  
#> Oat crake                        0.8          1.0       1.0     1.0          
#> Cold start                       0.8          1.0       1.0     1.0       1.0
#> Big dipper                       0.8          1.0       1.0     1.0       1.0
#> Shylark                          0.8          1.0       1.0     1.0       1.0
#> Startling                        0.8          1.0       1.0     1.0       1.0
#> Deadwing                         0.8          1.0       1.0     1.0       1.0
#> Crook                            0.8          1.0       1.0     1.0       1.0
#> Nightcap                         0.8          1.0       1.0     1.0       1.0
#> Golden lover                     0.8          1.0       1.0     1.0       1.0
#> Baby bunting                     0.8          1.0       1.0     1.0       1.0
#> Mute swain                       0.8          1.0       1.0     1.0       1.0
#> Chinese kite                     1.0          0.8       0.8     0.8       0.8
#> Brownie owl                      0.8          1.0       1.0     1.0       1.0
#> Hen hurrier                      0.8          1.0       1.0     1.0       1.0
#> Grrrr falcon                     1.0          0.8       0.8     0.8       0.8
#> Gosh hawk                        0.8          1.0       1.0     1.0       1.0
#> Cough                            1.0          0.8       0.8     0.8       0.8
#> Flapwing                         0.8          1.0       1.0     1.0       1.0
#> Not                              1.0          0.8       0.8     0.8       0.8
#> Bar-tailed nitwit                1.0          0.8       0.8     0.8       0.8
#> Snoop                            1.0          0.8       0.8     0.8       0.8
#> Funny tern                       0.8          1.0       1.0     1.0       1.0
#> Cut throat                       1.0          0.8       0.8     0.8       0.8
#> Throttled dove                   1.0          0.8       0.8     0.8       0.8
#> Ribbon                           0.8          1.0       1.0     1.0       1.0
#> Backchat                         0.8          1.0       1.0     1.0       1.0
#> Missile thrush                   0.8          1.0       1.0     1.0       1.0
#> Cold tit                         0.8          1.0       1.0     1.0       1.0
#> Twit                             0.8          1.0       1.0     1.0       1.0
#> Yellow spanner                   0.8          1.0       1.0     1.0       1.0
#> Born howl                        0.8          1.0       1.0     1.0       1.0
#>                   Cold start Big dipper Shylark Startling Deadwing Crook
#> Killer quail                                                            
#> Riff raff                                                               
#> Slyneck                                                                 
#> Oat crake                                                               
#> Cold start                                                              
#> Big dipper               1.0                                            
#> Shylark                  1.0        1.0                                 
#> Startling                1.0        1.0     1.0                         
#> Deadwing                 1.0        1.0     1.0       1.0               
#> Crook                    1.0        1.0     1.0       1.0      1.0      
#> Nightcap                 1.0        1.0     1.0       1.0      1.0   1.0
#> Golden lover             1.0        1.0     1.0       1.0      1.0   1.0
#> Baby bunting             1.0        1.0     1.0       1.0      1.0   1.0
#> Mute swain               1.0        1.0     1.0       1.0      1.0   1.0
#> Chinese kite             0.8        0.8     0.8       0.8      0.8   0.8
#> Brownie owl              1.0        1.0     1.0       1.0      1.0   1.0
#> Hen hurrier              1.0        1.0     1.0       1.0      1.0   1.0
#> Grrrr falcon             0.8        0.8     0.8       0.8      0.8   0.8
#> Gosh hawk                1.0        1.0     1.0       1.0      1.0   1.0
#> Cough                    0.8        0.8     0.8       0.8      0.8   0.8
#> Flapwing                 1.0        1.0     1.0       1.0      1.0   1.0
#> Not                      0.8        0.8     0.8       0.8      0.8   0.8
#> Bar-tailed nitwit        0.8        0.8     0.8       0.8      0.8   0.8
#> Snoop                    0.8        0.8     0.8       0.8      0.8   0.8
#> Funny tern               1.0        1.0     1.0       1.0      1.0   1.0
#> Cut throat               0.8        0.8     0.8       0.8      0.8   0.8
#> Throttled dove           0.8        0.8     0.8       0.8      0.8   0.8
#> Ribbon                   1.0        1.0     1.0       1.0      1.0   1.0
#> Backchat                 1.0        1.0     1.0       1.0      1.0   1.0
#> Missile thrush           1.0        1.0     1.0       1.0      1.0   1.0
#> Cold tit                 1.0        1.0     1.0       1.0      1.0   1.0
#> Twit                     1.0        1.0     1.0       1.0      1.0   1.0
#> Yellow spanner           1.0        1.0     1.0       1.0      1.0   1.0
#> Born howl                1.0        1.0     1.0       1.0      1.0   1.0
#>                   Nightcap Golden lover Baby bunting Mute swain Chinese kite
#> Killer quail                                                                
#> Riff raff                                                                   
#> Slyneck                                                                     
#> Oat crake                                                                   
#> Cold start                                                                  
#> Big dipper                                                                  
#> Shylark                                                                     
#> Startling                                                                   
#> Deadwing                                                                    
#> Crook                                                                       
#> Nightcap                                                                    
#> Golden lover           1.0                                                  
#> Baby bunting           1.0          1.0                                     
#> Mute swain             1.0          1.0          1.0                        
#> Chinese kite           0.8          0.8          0.8        0.8             
#> Brownie owl            1.0          1.0          1.0        1.0          0.8
#> Hen hurrier            1.0          1.0          1.0        1.0          0.8
#> Grrrr falcon           0.8          0.8          0.8        0.8          1.0
#> Gosh hawk              1.0          1.0          1.0        1.0          0.8
#> Cough                  0.8          0.8          0.8        0.8          1.0
#> Flapwing               1.0          1.0          1.0        1.0          0.8
#> Not                    0.8          0.8          0.8        0.8          1.0
#> Bar-tailed nitwit      0.8          0.8          0.8        0.8          1.0
#> Snoop                  0.8          0.8          0.8        0.8          1.0
#> Funny tern             1.0          1.0          1.0        1.0          0.8
#> Cut throat             0.8          0.8          0.8        0.8          1.0
#> Throttled dove         0.8          0.8          0.8        0.8          1.0
#> Ribbon                 1.0          1.0          1.0        1.0          0.8
#> Backchat               1.0          1.0          1.0        1.0          0.8
#> Missile thrush         1.0          1.0          1.0        1.0          0.8
#> Cold tit               1.0          1.0          1.0        1.0          0.8
#> Twit                   1.0          1.0          1.0        1.0          0.8
#> Yellow spanner         1.0          1.0          1.0        1.0          0.8
#> Born howl              1.0          1.0          1.0        1.0          0.8
#>                   Brownie owl Hen hurrier Grrrr falcon Gosh hawk Cough Flapwing
#> Killer quail                                                                   
#> Riff raff                                                                      
#> Slyneck                                                                        
#> Oat crake                                                                      
#> Cold start                                                                     
#> Big dipper                                                                     
#> Shylark                                                                        
#> Startling                                                                      
#> Deadwing                                                                       
#> Crook                                                                          
#> Nightcap                                                                       
#> Golden lover                                                                   
#> Baby bunting                                                                   
#> Mute swain                                                                     
#> Chinese kite                                                                   
#> Brownie owl                                                                    
#> Hen hurrier               1.0                                                  
#> Grrrr falcon              0.8         0.8                                      
#> Gosh hawk                 1.0         1.0          0.8                         
#> Cough                     0.8         0.8          1.0       0.8               
#> Flapwing                  1.0         1.0          0.8       1.0   0.8         
#> Not                       0.8         0.8          1.0       0.8   1.0      0.8
#> Bar-tailed nitwit         0.8         0.8          1.0       0.8   1.0      0.8
#> Snoop                     0.8         0.8          1.0       0.8   1.0      0.8
#> Funny tern                1.0         1.0          0.8       1.0   0.8      1.0
#> Cut throat                0.8         0.8          1.0       0.8   1.0      0.8
#> Throttled dove            0.8         0.8          1.0       0.8   1.0      0.8
#> Ribbon                    1.0         1.0          0.8       1.0   0.8      1.0
#> Backchat                  1.0         1.0          0.8       1.0   0.8      1.0
#> Missile thrush            1.0         1.0          0.8       1.0   0.8      1.0
#> Cold tit                  1.0         1.0          0.8       1.0   0.8      1.0
#> Twit                      1.0         1.0          0.8       1.0   0.8      1.0
#> Yellow spanner            1.0         1.0          0.8       1.0   0.8      1.0
#> Born howl                 1.0         1.0          0.8       1.0   0.8      1.0
#>                   Not Bar-tailed nitwit Snoop Funny tern Cut throat
#> Killer quail                                                       
#> Riff raff                                                          
#> Slyneck                                                            
#> Oat crake                                                          
#> Cold start                                                         
#> Big dipper                                                         
#> Shylark                                                            
#> Startling                                                          
#> Deadwing                                                           
#> Crook                                                              
#> Nightcap                                                           
#> Golden lover                                                       
#> Baby bunting                                                       
#> Mute swain                                                         
#> Chinese kite                                                       
#> Brownie owl                                                        
#> Hen hurrier                                                        
#> Grrrr falcon                                                       
#> Gosh hawk                                                          
#> Cough                                                              
#> Flapwing                                                           
#> Not                                                                
#> Bar-tailed nitwit 1.0                                              
#> Snoop             1.0               1.0                            
#> Funny tern        0.8               0.8   0.8                      
#> Cut throat        1.0               1.0   1.0        0.8           
#> Throttled dove    1.0               1.0   1.0        0.8        1.0
#> Ribbon            0.8               0.8   0.8        1.0        0.8
#> Backchat          0.8               0.8   0.8        1.0        0.8
#> Missile thrush    0.8               0.8   0.8        1.0        0.8
#> Cold tit          0.8               0.8   0.8        1.0        0.8
#> Twit              0.8               0.8   0.8        1.0        0.8
#> Yellow spanner    0.8               0.8   0.8        1.0        0.8
#> Born howl         0.8               0.8   0.8        1.0        0.8
#>                   Throttled dove Ribbon Backchat Missile thrush Cold tit Twit
#> Killer quail                                                                 
#> Riff raff                                                                    
#> Slyneck                                                                      
#> Oat crake                                                                    
#> Cold start                                                                   
#> Big dipper                                                                   
#> Shylark                                                                      
#> Startling                                                                    
#> Deadwing                                                                     
#> Crook                                                                        
#> Nightcap                                                                     
#> Golden lover                                                                 
#> Baby bunting                                                                 
#> Mute swain                                                                   
#> Chinese kite                                                                 
#> Brownie owl                                                                  
#> Hen hurrier                                                                  
#> Grrrr falcon                                                                 
#> Gosh hawk                                                                    
#> Cough                                                                        
#> Flapwing                                                                     
#> Not                                                                          
#> Bar-tailed nitwit                                                            
#> Snoop                                                                        
#> Funny tern                                                                   
#> Cut throat                                                                   
#> Throttled dove                                                               
#> Ribbon                       0.8                                             
#> Backchat                     0.8    1.0                                      
#> Missile thrush               0.8    1.0      1.0                             
#> Cold tit                     0.8    1.0      1.0            1.0              
#> Twit                         0.8    1.0      1.0            1.0      1.0     
#> Yellow spanner               0.8    1.0      1.0            1.0      1.0  1.0
#> Born howl                    0.8    1.0      1.0            1.0      1.0  1.0
#>                   Yellow spanner
#> Killer quail                    
#> Riff raff                       
#> Slyneck                         
#> Oat crake                       
#> Cold start                      
#> Big dipper                      
#> Shylark                         
#> Startling                       
#> Deadwing                        
#> Crook                           
#> Nightcap                        
#> Golden lover                    
#> Baby bunting                    
#> Mute swain                      
#> Chinese kite                    
#> Brownie owl                     
#> Hen hurrier                     
#> Grrrr falcon                    
#> Gosh hawk                       
#> Cough                           
#> Flapwing                        
#> Not                             
#> Bar-tailed nitwit               
#> Snoop                           
#> Funny tern                      
#> Cut throat                      
#> Throttled dove                  
#> Ribbon                          
#> Backchat                        
#> Missile thrush                  
#> Cold tit                        
#> Twit                            
#> Yellow spanner                  
#> Born howl                    1.0

# Jaccard measure (Bray's formula ; count data)
similarity(birds, "bray") # 0.44
#>                   Spotted ratcatcher Killer quail  Riff raff    Slyneck
#> Killer quail              0.01595745                                   
#> Riff raff                 0.40000000   0.06233766                      
#> Slyneck                   0.60000000   0.03684211 0.73684211           
#> Oat crake                 0.13043478   0.20192308 0.43636364 0.28000000
#> Cold start                0.24000000   0.10126582 0.52941176 0.48275862
#> Big dipper                0.16216216   0.09828010 0.30434783 0.29268293
#> Shylark                   0.20000000   0.13500000 0.56410256 0.41176471
#> Startling                 0.09836066   0.17169374 0.34285714 0.21538462
#> Deadwing                  0.57142857   0.02122016 0.50000000 0.72727273
#> Crook                     0.60000000   0.03684211 0.63157895 0.57142857
#> Nightcap                  0.08333333   0.04072398 0.14814815 0.10526316
#> Golden lover              0.24000000   0.09620253 0.35294118 0.27586207
#> Baby bunting              0.26086957   0.09160305 0.31250000 0.29629630
#> Mute swain                0.30000000   0.08717949 0.41379310 0.41666667
#> Chinese kite              0.31578947   0.08226221 0.28571429 0.26086957
#> Brownie owl               0.17391304   0.03562341 0.37500000 0.37037037
#> Hen hurrier               0.13043478   0.09615385 0.21818182 0.16000000
#> Grrrr falcon              0.06060606   0.08102345 0.09259259 0.05825243
#> Gosh hawk                 0.66666667   0.03166227 0.66666667 0.76923077
#> Cough                     0.11764706   0.08076010 0.13333333 0.10909091
#> Flapwing                  0.08955224   0.16933638 0.31578947 0.19718310
#> Not                       0.26086957   0.03562341 0.31250000 0.22222222
#> Bar-tailed nitwit         0.04411765   0.03557312 0.06896552 0.04285714
#> Snoop                     0.31578947   0.05141388 0.35714286 0.26086957
#> Funny tern                0.20000000   0.06000000 0.30769231 0.23529412
#> Cut throat                0.27272727   0.09693878 0.32258065 0.23076923
#> Throttled dove            0.15384615   0.09290954 0.20833333 0.13953488
#> Ribbon                    0.23076923   0.10101010 0.34285714 0.26666667
#> Backchat                  0.28571429   0.05115090 0.40000000 0.32000000
#> Missile thrush            0.35294118   0.05684755 0.46153846 0.38095238
#> Cold tit                  0.20689655   0.11027569 0.63157895 0.42424242
#> Twit                      0.16666667   0.13793103 0.53333333 0.35000000
#> Yellow spanner            0.05825243   0.12262156 0.21428571 0.13084112
#> Born howl                 0.22222222   0.05037783 0.44444444 0.38709677
#>                    Oat crake Cold start Big dipper    Shylark  Startling
#> Killer quail                                                            
#> Riff raff                                                               
#> Slyneck                                                                 
#> Oat crake                                                               
#> Cold start        0.55384615                                            
#> Big dipper        0.36363636 0.60714286                                 
#> Shylark           0.65714286 0.73469388 0.59016393                      
#> Startling         0.63366337 0.55000000 0.56521739 0.63529412           
#> Deadwing          0.17021277 0.30769231 0.21052632 0.25806452 0.12903226
#> Crook             0.28000000 0.48275862 0.29268293 0.35294118 0.21538462
#> Nightcap          0.17857143 0.24175824 0.13592233 0.14583333 0.37795276
#> Golden lover      0.40000000 0.72727273 0.75000000 0.65306122 0.55000000
#> Baby bunting      0.38095238 0.71428571 0.74074074 0.68085106 0.51282051
#> Mute swain        0.43333333 0.82051282 0.66666667 0.77272727 0.45333333
#> Chinese kite      0.37288136 0.73684211 0.64000000 0.69767442 0.43243243
#> Brownie owl       0.25396825 0.42857143 0.18518519 0.21276596 0.51282051
#> Hen hurrier       0.34883721 0.58461538 0.75324675 0.45714286 0.75247525
#> Grrrr falcon      0.20143885 0.30508475 0.47692308 0.24390244 0.51948052
#> Gosh hawk         0.24489796 0.42857143 0.30000000 0.36363636 0.18750000
#> Cough             0.24175824 0.40000000 0.75609756 0.40000000 0.43396226
#> Flapwing          0.59813084 0.51162791 0.69387755 0.59340659 0.78688525
#> Not               0.25396825 0.42857143 0.18518519 0.21276596 0.51282051
#> Bar-tailed nitwit 0.11363636 0.14193548 0.08383234 0.08750000 0.25130890
#> Snoop             0.37288136 0.63157895 0.32000000 0.37209302 0.43243243
#> Funny tern        0.37142857 0.57142857 0.32786885 0.37037037 0.63529412
#> Cut throat        0.41935484 0.78048780 0.64150943 0.65217391 0.49350649
#> Throttled dove    0.35443038 0.58620690 0.88571429 0.47619048 0.55319149
#> Ribbon            0.42424242 0.75555556 0.73684211 0.64000000 0.56790123
#> Backchat          0.36065574 0.60000000 0.30769231 0.35555556 0.47368421
#> Missile thrush    0.42105263 0.72222222 0.37500000 0.43902439 0.38888889
#> Cold tit          0.66666667 0.70833333 0.40000000 0.75471698 0.61904762
#> Twit              0.60526316 0.80000000 0.59701493 0.80000000 0.72527473
#> Yellow spanner    0.33566434 0.36065574 0.46268657 0.39370079 0.63291139
#> Born howl         0.32835821 0.52173913 0.27586207 0.31372549 0.58536585
#>                     Deadwing      Crook   Nightcap Golden lover Baby bunting
#> Killer quail                                                                
#> Riff raff                                                                   
#> Slyneck                                                                     
#> Oat crake                                                                   
#> Cold start                                                                  
#> Big dipper                                                                  
#> Shylark                                                                     
#> Startling                                                                   
#> Deadwing                                                                    
#> Crook             0.54545455                                                
#> Nightcap          0.08219178 0.18421053                                     
#> Golden lover      0.23076923 0.48275862 0.17582418                          
#> Baby bunting      0.25000000 0.44444444 0.15730337   0.95238095             
#> Mute swain        0.38095238 0.50000000 0.16279070   0.82051282   0.86486486
#> Chinese kite      0.20000000 0.43478261 0.14117647   0.84210526   0.88888889
#> Brownie owl       0.33333333 0.29629630 0.40449438   0.19047619   0.15000000
#> Hen hurrier       0.12765957 0.28000000 0.37500000   0.67692308   0.63492063
#> Grrrr falcon      0.04000000 0.11650485 0.78787879   0.35593220   0.32758621
#> Gosh hawk         0.80000000 0.76923077 0.13333333   0.35714286   0.38461538
#> Cough             0.07692308 0.18181818 0.10256410   0.57142857   0.55882353
#> Flapwing          0.11764706 0.19718310 0.21052632   0.51162791   0.47619048
#> Not               0.16666667 0.44444444 0.44943820   0.28571429   0.25000000
#> Bar-tailed nitwit 0.02919708 0.08571429 0.67326733   0.10322581   0.09150327
#> Snoop             0.20000000 0.52173913 0.32941176   0.47368421   0.44444444
#> Funny tern        0.19354839 0.41176471 0.50000000   0.44897959   0.42553191
#> Cut throat        0.17391304 0.46153846 0.18181818   0.87804878   0.87179487
#> Throttled dove    0.10000000 0.27906977 0.17142857   0.72413793   0.67857143
#> Ribbon            0.22222222 0.46666667 0.19565217   0.97777778   0.93023256
#> Backchat          0.27272727 0.56000000 0.39080460   0.45000000   0.42105263
#> Missile thrush    0.33333333 0.66666667 0.28915663   0.55555556   0.52941176
#> Cold tit          0.26666667 0.42424242 0.27368421   0.45833333   0.43478261
#> Twit              0.21621622 0.35000000 0.27450980   0.69090909   0.67924528
#> Yellow spanner    0.07692308 0.13084112 0.81656805   0.36065574   0.33333333
#> Born howl         0.28571429 0.45161290 0.47311828   0.30434783   0.27272727
#>                   Mute swain Chinese kite Brownie owl Hen hurrier Grrrr falcon
#> Killer quail                                                                  
#> Riff raff                                                                     
#> Slyneck                                                                       
#> Oat crake                                                                     
#> Cold start                                                                    
#> Big dipper                                                                    
#> Shylark                                                                       
#> Startling                                                                     
#> Deadwing                                                                      
#> Crook                                                                         
#> Nightcap                                                                      
#> Golden lover                                                                  
#> Baby bunting                                                                  
#> Mute swain                                                                    
#> Chinese kite      0.90909091                                                  
#> Brownie owl       0.21621622   0.11111111                                     
#> Hen hurrier       0.53333333   0.54237288  0.53968254                         
#> Grrrr falcon      0.26548673   0.28571429  0.29310345  0.60431655             
#> Gosh hawk         0.52173913   0.36363636  0.30769231  0.20408163   0.07843137
#> Cough             0.46153846   0.50000000  0.05882353  0.61538462   0.51388889
#> Flapwing          0.41975309   0.40000000  0.28571429  0.67289720   0.55000000
#> Not               0.27027027   0.27777778  0.85000000  0.60317460   0.34482759
#> Bar-tailed nitwit 0.09333333   0.09395973  0.22222222  0.23863636   0.57641921
#> Snoop             0.48484848   0.50000000  0.55555556  0.54237288   0.28571429
#> Funny tern        0.45454545   0.41860465  0.76595745  0.68571429   0.42276423
#> Cut throat        0.83333333   0.91428571  0.20512821  0.61290323   0.33043478
#> Throttled dove    0.56603774   0.61538462  0.17857143  0.78481013   0.54545455
#> Ribbon            0.80000000   0.82051282  0.23255814  0.69696970   0.36974790
#> Backchat          0.45714286   0.41176471  0.68421053  0.59016393   0.29824561
#> Missile thrush    0.58064516   0.53333333  0.47058824  0.49122807   0.23636364
#> Cold tit          0.51162791   0.42857143  0.47826087  0.46376812   0.24590164
#> Twit              0.68000000   0.65306122  0.45283019  0.65789474   0.37209302
#> Yellow spanner    0.29059829   0.27586207  0.33333333  0.60139860   0.88775510
#> Born howl         0.34146341   0.25000000  0.90909091  0.59701493   0.35000000
#>                    Gosh hawk      Cough   Flapwing        Not Bar-tailed nitwit
#> Killer quail                                                                   
#> Riff raff                                                                      
#> Slyneck                                                                        
#> Oat crake                                                                      
#> Cold start                                                                     
#> Big dipper                                                                     
#> Shylark                                                                        
#> Startling                                                                      
#> Deadwing                                                                       
#> Crook                                                                          
#> Nightcap                                                                       
#> Golden lover                                                                   
#> Baby bunting                                                                   
#> Mute swain                                                                     
#> Chinese kite                                                                   
#> Brownie owl                                                                    
#> Hen hurrier                                                                    
#> Grrrr falcon                                                                   
#> Gosh hawk                                                                      
#> Cough             0.14814815                                                   
#> Flapwing          0.17142857 0.69642857                                        
#> Not               0.30769231 0.14705882 0.28571429                             
#> Bar-tailed nitwit 0.05755396 0.07734807 0.14213198 0.26143791                  
#> Snoop             0.36363636 0.25000000 0.37500000 0.72222222        0.20134228
#> Funny tern        0.30303030 0.24000000 0.37362637 0.85106383        0.30000000
#> Cut throat        0.32000000 0.50746269 0.45783133 0.35897436        0.11842105
#> Throttled dove    0.19047619 0.78571429 0.72000000 0.28571429        0.11834320
#> Ribbon            0.34482759 0.56338028 0.52873563 0.32558140        0.11538462
#> Backchat          0.41666667 0.21212121 0.36585366 0.78947368        0.22516556
#> Missile thrush    0.50000000 0.25806452 0.35897436 0.58823529        0.16326531
#> Cold tit          0.37500000 0.24324324 0.57777778 0.47826087        0.16352201
#> Twit              0.30769231 0.41975309 0.68041237 0.45283019        0.16867470
#> Yellow spanner    0.11320755 0.37837838 0.54878049 0.33333333        0.59227468
#> Born howl         0.40000000 0.13888889 0.34090909 0.90909091        0.26751592
#>                        Snoop Funny tern Cut throat Throttled dove     Ribbon
#> Killer quail                                                                
#> Riff raff                                                                   
#> Slyneck                                                                     
#> Oat crake                                                                   
#> Cold start                                                                  
#> Big dipper                                                                  
#> Shylark                                                                     
#> Startling                                                                   
#> Deadwing                                                                    
#> Crook                                                                       
#> Nightcap                                                                    
#> Golden lover                                                                
#> Baby bunting                                                                
#> Mute swain                                                                  
#> Chinese kite                                                                
#> Brownie owl                                                                 
#> Hen hurrier                                                                 
#> Grrrr falcon                                                                
#> Gosh hawk                                                                   
#> Cough                                                                       
#> Flapwing                                                                    
#> Not                                                                         
#> Bar-tailed nitwit                                                           
#> Snoop                                                                       
#> Funny tern        0.74418605                                                
#> Cut throat        0.57142857 0.47826087                                     
#> Throttled dove    0.42307692 0.38095238 0.69090909                          
#> Ribbon            0.51282051 0.48000000 0.90476190     0.74576271           
#> Backchat          0.88235294 0.80000000 0.48648649     0.37037037 0.48780488
#> Missile thrush    0.86666667 0.68292683 0.60606061     0.44000000 0.59459459
#> Cold tit          0.66666667 0.60377358 0.48888889     0.38709677 0.48979592
#> Twit              0.61224490 0.56666667 0.73076923     0.57971014 0.71428571
#> Yellow spanner    0.27586207 0.42519685 0.31932773     0.45588235 0.37398374
#> Born howl         0.65000000 0.86274510 0.32558140     0.26666667 0.34042553
#>                     Backchat Missile thrush   Cold tit       Twit
#> Killer quail                                                     
#> Riff raff                                                        
#> Slyneck                                                          
#> Oat crake                                                        
#> Cold start                                                       
#> Big dipper                                                       
#> Shylark                                                          
#> Startling                                                        
#> Deadwing                                                         
#> Crook                                                            
#> Nightcap                                                         
#> Golden lover                                                     
#> Baby bunting                                                     
#> Mute swain                                                       
#> Chinese kite                                                     
#> Brownie owl                                                      
#> Hen hurrier                                                      
#> Grrrr falcon                                                     
#> Gosh hawk                                                        
#> Cough                                                            
#> Flapwing                                                         
#> Not                                                              
#> Bar-tailed nitwit                                                
#> Snoop                                                            
#> Funny tern                                                       
#> Cut throat                                                       
#> Throttled dove                                                   
#> Ribbon                                                           
#> Backchat                                                         
#> Missile thrush    0.81250000                                     
#> Cold tit          0.63636364     0.70000000                      
#> Twit              0.58823529     0.59574468 0.81355932           
#> Yellow spanner    0.30508475     0.24561404 0.39682540 0.49624060
#> Born howl         0.76190476     0.57894737 0.56000000 0.52631579
#>                   Yellow spanner
#> Killer quail                    
#> Riff raff                       
#> Slyneck                         
#> Oat crake                       
#> Cold start                      
#> Big dipper                      
#> Shylark                         
#> Startling                       
#> Deadwing                        
#> Crook                           
#> Nightcap                        
#> Golden lover                    
#> Baby bunting                    
#> Mute swain                      
#> Chinese kite                    
#> Brownie owl                     
#> Hen hurrier                     
#> Grrrr falcon                    
#> Gosh hawk                       
#> Cough                           
#> Flapwing                        
#> Not                             
#> Bar-tailed nitwit               
#> Snoop                           
#> Funny tern                      
#> Cut throat                      
#> Throttled dove                  
#> Ribbon                          
#> Backchat                        
#> Missile thrush                  
#> Cold tit                        
#> Twit                            
#> Yellow spanner                  
#> Born howl             0.38709677

# Morisita-Horn measure (count data)
similarity(birds, "morisita") # 0.81
#>                   Spotted ratcatcher Killer quail  Riff raff    Slyneck
#> Killer quail              0.04290000                                   
#> Riff raff                 0.45070423   0.84862414                      
#> Slyneck                   0.48387097   0.83492820 0.99769053           
#> Oat crake                 0.34673536   0.91647485 0.98520872 0.98317818
#> Cold start                0.94941995   0.29888642 0.67481078 0.70773443
#> Big dipper                0.89076593   0.14418839 0.45487194 0.50457410
#> Shylark                   0.69973190   0.64849595 0.87955717 0.90905116
#> Startling                 0.79887441   0.50568369 0.85413482 0.86278863
#> Deadwing                  0.53731343   0.76276885 0.98275862 0.97777778
#> Crook                     0.96774194   0.24397626 0.63741339 0.66666667
#> Nightcap                  0.50572289   0.02779577 0.28156083 0.25151486
#> Golden lover              0.92404620   0.09755893 0.43408453 0.48231191
#> Baby bunting              0.89987839   0.10067534 0.42149866 0.47099368
#> Mute swain                0.90903503   0.18453266 0.50497205 0.55321020
#> Chinese kite              0.89800845   0.04561034 0.37276933 0.42212766
#> Brownie owl               0.49157943   0.19256972 0.42596349 0.39190072
#> Hen hurrier               0.99786996   0.07301888 0.48293530 0.51324395
#> Grrrr falcon              0.84345048   0.02944836 0.41155235 0.40930233
#> Gosh hawk                 0.82352941   0.52518627 0.84745763 0.87378641
#> Cough                     0.87106017   0.04529896 0.35727670 0.40747029
#> Flapwing                  0.87253841   0.43469983 0.75945612 0.79515769
#> Not                       0.64748201   0.01897282 0.33016508 0.30927835
#> Bar-tailed nitwit         0.47416749   0.01058669 0.25353470 0.22243746
#> Snoop                     0.90122449   0.03302652 0.43293247 0.43861740
#> Funny tern                0.77078086   0.07411363 0.42895252 0.41792261
#> Cut throat                0.95226730   0.04569259 0.40672591 0.45268890
#> Throttled dove            0.92727273   0.04577224 0.39048811 0.43839542
#> Ribbon                    0.94552139   0.09694589 0.44814548 0.49474187
#> Backchat                  0.81656805   0.10348906 0.47394958 0.46775746
#> Missile thrush            0.95781072   0.13819132 0.54776655 0.56470588
#> Cold tit                  0.65402844   0.66767760 0.94910591 0.95035461
#> Twit                      0.87475149   0.44314038 0.80298894 0.82581495
#> Yellow spanner            0.75336438   0.16139052 0.50712786 0.49381939
#> Born howl                 0.63091483   0.18163073 0.47686833 0.45236882
#>                    Oat crake Cold start Big dipper    Shylark  Startling
#> Killer quail                                                            
#> Riff raff                                                               
#> Slyneck                                                                 
#> Oat crake                                                               
#> Cold start        0.59105696                                            
#> Big dipper        0.40994348 0.89120609                                 
#> Shylark           0.86015411 0.87755474 0.79336527                      
#> Startling         0.76429105 0.91148089 0.66066796 0.86066990           
#> Deadwing          0.93796864 0.73052363 0.46818013 0.85696846 0.92082724
#> Crook             0.54074800 0.99383984 0.86399675 0.82641014 0.91429840
#> Nightcap          0.16446025 0.39743232 0.11322786 0.11911092 0.53647275
#> Golden lover      0.37676613 0.90625000 0.99613681 0.77025319 0.67704788
#> Baby bunting      0.37172247 0.88442577 0.99862861 0.76513017 0.64683013
#> Mute swain        0.45559083 0.92331650 0.99649942 0.82780992 0.71150749
#> Chinese kite      0.31967849 0.86304124 0.99286142 0.72328506 0.61509862
#> Brownie owl       0.31661243 0.43432482 0.11139307 0.21579467 0.62664363
#> Hen hurrier       0.37552301 0.95655548 0.86883588 0.70883181 0.82918860
#> Grrrr falcon      0.27716454 0.75354562 0.52981219 0.43561467 0.77488974
#> Gosh hawk         0.78676787 0.95758929 0.80859758 0.96557246 0.95073308
#> Cough             0.31101640 0.83746942 0.99013286 0.71268390 0.58327073
#> Flapwing          0.70351268 0.97690011 0.89494747 0.95625313 0.89641910
#> Not               0.20195816 0.53865559 0.27262865 0.23233579 0.63775033
#> Bar-tailed nitwit 0.13876841 0.36161181 0.07982203 0.08505737 0.50138973
#> Snoop             0.30050972 0.82056908 0.62173051 0.50777191 0.80661026
#> Funny tern        0.29661786 0.68906687 0.43051585 0.38904110 0.76031388
#> Cut throat        0.33639830 0.91354927 0.98296605 0.73636519 0.68826686
#> Throttled dove    0.32885859 0.89053022 0.99087672 0.73218143 0.65260092
#> Ribbon            0.38324588 0.92615963 0.98967115 0.77410125 0.70785631
#> Backchat          0.34188074 0.75083038 0.49730255 0.46087581 0.80890591
#> Missile thrush    0.42728789 0.93013143 0.75056160 0.67703235 0.88955663
#> Cold tit          0.88437733 0.82029340 0.55894786 0.87858949 0.97139412
#> Twit              0.72078837 0.97538638 0.79451595 0.91291259 0.97564097
#> Yellow spanner    0.37866764 0.70245071 0.41924043 0.43855141 0.80598760
#> Born howl         0.35560488 0.57648680 0.26858323 0.33213424 0.73008930
#>                     Deadwing      Crook   Nightcap Golden lover Baby bunting
#> Killer quail                                                                
#> Riff raff                                                                   
#> Slyneck                                                                     
#> Oat crake                                                                   
#> Cold start                                                                  
#> Big dipper                                                                  
#> Shylark                                                                     
#> Startling                                                                   
#> Deadwing                                                                    
#> Crook             0.71111111                                                
#> Nightcap          0.41779296 0.48016474                                     
#> Golden lover      0.46210046 0.88789238 0.18334401                          
#> Baby bunting      0.44117647 0.86157381 0.13492965   0.99808011             
#> Mute swain        0.52202020 0.89709763 0.14999176   0.99459268   0.99304752
#> Chinese kite      0.39751553 0.84425532 0.14518661   0.99491826   0.99760722
#> Brownie owl       0.55288462 0.50947093 0.97896053   0.17270956   0.12500000
#> Hen hurrier       0.57389854 0.97727273 0.53753288   0.90367829   0.87679000
#> Grrrr falcon      0.55172414 0.81860465 0.87250990   0.59137412   0.54781801
#> Gosh hawk         0.87272727 0.93203883 0.31471821   0.80713713   0.78910937
#> Cough             0.37475602 0.81494058 0.10006707   0.98815205   0.99457894
#> Flapwing          0.77909739 0.94807263 0.25067632   0.89231058   0.87887603
#> Not               0.47393365 0.61855670 0.98074243   0.34181149   0.29431438
#> Bar-tailed nitwit 0.38794432 0.44487493 0.99845460   0.15061763   0.10220219
#> Snoop             0.56637168 0.87723480 0.80968294   0.67875568   0.63784550
#> Funny tern        0.57067371 0.75885947 0.91891208   0.49337933   0.44764961
#> Cut throat        0.45082735 0.90537781 0.26085596   0.99529161   0.98870738
#> Throttled dove    0.42463958 0.87679083 0.20207563   0.99800347   0.99606915
#> Ribbon            0.48474204 0.91252390 0.23316062   0.99795808   0.99210233
#> Backchat          0.61180680 0.81424447 0.87872578   0.55627102   0.51177558
#> Missile thrush    0.65830721 0.96470588 0.67075120   0.79336627   0.75771140
#> Cold tit          0.98666667 0.80851064 0.46276215   0.56141869   0.53660152
#> Twit              0.85621622 0.96707277 0.43141286   0.80604328   0.78111964
#> Yellow spanner    0.64342536 0.76746454 0.90412862   0.47734692   0.43172691
#> Born howl         0.61132075 0.64798777 0.95449351   0.32891574   0.28183396
#>                   Mute swain Chinese kite Brownie owl Hen hurrier Grrrr falcon
#> Killer quail                                                                  
#> Riff raff                                                                     
#> Slyneck                                                                       
#> Oat crake                                                                     
#> Cold start                                                                    
#> Big dipper                                                                    
#> Shylark                                                                       
#> Startling                                                                     
#> Deadwing                                                                      
#> Crook                                                                         
#> Nightcap                                                                      
#> Golden lover                                                                  
#> Baby bunting                                                                  
#> Mute swain                                                                    
#> Chinese kite      0.98299221                                                  
#> Brownie owl       0.15565192   0.12517666                                     
#> Hen hurrier       0.89167814   0.87252436  0.53145105                         
#> Grrrr falcon      0.56342001   0.55248619  0.86729363  0.86564612             
#> Gosh hawk         0.84984932   0.75358362  0.39536110  0.83908008   0.63396226
#> Cough             0.97612439   0.99811499  0.08080894  0.84311767   0.51019220
#> Flapwing          0.92654338   0.84875184  0.30905387  0.87773858   0.61477046
#> Not               0.30790904   0.30393921  0.96654275  0.67639401   0.94943240
#> Bar-tailed nitwit 0.11597445   0.11351490  0.97053926  0.50537184   0.84938624
#> Snoop             0.65383146   0.64044944  0.80468958  0.91950913   0.99248120
#> Funny tern        0.46795134   0.45105887  0.92391149  0.79890438   0.99126444
#> Cut throat        0.98321108   0.98874359  0.24076109  0.93372547   0.65512759
#> Throttled dove    0.98608339   0.99719567  0.18171876  0.90510276   0.60399190
#> Ribbon            0.99238579   0.98805761  0.22274950  0.92824558   0.63493889
#> Backchat          0.53584388   0.51178830  0.89166176  0.84404268   0.99507762
#> Missile thrush    0.78530739   0.74990952  0.68595729  0.97378926   0.93885602
#> Cold tit          0.61249521   0.49682152  0.58197033  0.68848111   0.64657534
#> Twit              0.83786868   0.75089027  0.50151753  0.89372329   0.74117084
#> Yellow spanner    0.46145847   0.42932235  0.93029350  0.78616825   0.97918006
#> Born howl         0.31214108   0.28085106  0.98129232  0.66812304   0.93870968
#>                    Gosh hawk      Cough   Flapwing        Not Bar-tailed nitwit
#> Killer quail                                                                   
#> Riff raff                                                                      
#> Slyneck                                                                        
#> Oat crake                                                                      
#> Cold start                                                                     
#> Big dipper                                                                     
#> Shylark                                                                        
#> Startling                                                                      
#> Deadwing                                                                       
#> Crook                                                                          
#> Nightcap                                                                       
#> Golden lover                                                                   
#> Baby bunting                                                                   
#> Mute swain                                                                     
#> Chinese kite                                                                   
#> Brownie owl                                                                    
#> Hen hurrier                                                                    
#> Grrrr falcon                                                                   
#> Gosh hawk                                                                      
#> Cough             0.73148744                                                   
#> Flapwing          0.98416818 0.83042740                                        
#> Not               0.43659044 0.25927260 0.38810728                             
#> Bar-tailed nitwit 0.27895842 0.06840880 0.21474616 0.96989663                  
#> Snoop             0.69699903 0.60000000 0.69120654 0.90502499        0.78339684
#> Funny tern        0.58884758 0.40730238 0.54986903 0.97658016        0.89807196
#> Cut throat        0.79676579 0.97781123 0.87991243 0.41686256        0.22909091
#> Throttled dove    0.77720207 0.99074733 0.86685060 0.35976016        0.17036374
#> Ribbon            0.82419805 0.97751540 0.90375547 0.39029998        0.20037245
#> Backchat          0.65492958 0.46876875 0.62022541 0.95157539        0.85419932
#> Missile thrush    0.83424658 0.71319048 0.83638490 0.79168187        0.63845527
#> Cold tit          0.92441860 0.47020308 0.84529445 0.53973013        0.43010504
#> Twit              0.98726501 0.72289808 0.96846004 0.55504941        0.39523611
#> Yellow spanner    0.62930086 0.38568413 0.57641550 0.96223487        0.88079748
#> Born howl         0.52044610 0.23658396 0.44872075 0.97948078        0.93749816
#>                        Snoop Funny tern Cut throat Throttled dove     Ribbon
#> Killer quail                                                                
#> Riff raff                                                                   
#> Slyneck                                                                     
#> Oat crake                                                                   
#> Cold start                                                                  
#> Big dipper                                                                  
#> Shylark                                                                     
#> Startling                                                                   
#> Deadwing                                                                    
#> Crook                                                                       
#> Nightcap                                                                    
#> Golden lover                                                                
#> Baby bunting                                                                
#> Mute swain                                                                  
#> Chinese kite                                                                
#> Brownie owl                                                                 
#> Hen hurrier                                                                 
#> Grrrr falcon                                                                
#> Gosh hawk                                                                   
#> Cough                                                                       
#> Flapwing                                                                    
#> Not                                                                         
#> Bar-tailed nitwit                                                           
#> Snoop                                                                       
#> Funny tern        0.96911821                                                
#> Cut throat        0.73635968 0.55972471                                     
#> Throttled dove    0.68899522 0.50513347 0.99715112                          
#> Ribbon            0.71916261 0.53984126 0.99797896     0.99587187           
#> Backchat          0.98362562 0.99529886 0.61747540     0.56459330 0.60133670
#> Missile thrush    0.97153445 0.89781053 0.83339358     0.79285497 0.82808561
#> Cold tit          0.66995074 0.65091454 0.55843772     0.52831749 0.58749219
#> Twit              0.79559097 0.69940918 0.81025324     0.78229040 0.83026481
#> Yellow spanner    0.95685302 0.99407911 0.53851164     0.48351784 0.52418783
#> Born howl         0.89530091 0.97564077 0.39429461     0.33667335 0.37788111
#>                     Backchat Missile thrush   Cold tit       Twit
#> Killer quail                                                     
#> Riff raff                                                        
#> Slyneck                                                          
#> Oat crake                                                        
#> Cold start                                                       
#> Big dipper                                                       
#> Shylark                                                          
#> Startling                                                        
#> Deadwing                                                         
#> Crook                                                            
#> Nightcap                                                         
#> Golden lover                                                     
#> Baby bunting                                                     
#> Mute swain                                                       
#> Chinese kite                                                     
#> Brownie owl                                                      
#> Hen hurrier                                                      
#> Grrrr falcon                                                     
#> Gosh hawk                                                        
#> Cough                                                            
#> Flapwing                                                         
#> Not                                                              
#> Bar-tailed nitwit                                                
#> Snoop                                                            
#> Funny tern                                                       
#> Cut throat                                                       
#> Throttled dove                                                   
#> Ribbon                                                           
#> Backchat                                                         
#> Missile thrush    0.93377754                                     
#> Cold tit          0.69703872     0.76300000                      
#> Twit              0.75925374     0.90656604 0.92341919           
#> Yellow spanner    0.99344340     0.89735216 0.71432563 0.73325218
#> Born howl         0.95928278     0.80460929 0.66167216 0.62760376
#>                   Yellow spanner
#> Killer quail                    
#> Riff raff                       
#> Slyneck                         
#> Oat crake                       
#> Cold start                      
#> Big dipper                      
#> Shylark                         
#> Startling                       
#> Deadwing                        
#> Crook                           
#> Nightcap                        
#> Golden lover                    
#> Baby bunting                    
#> Mute swain                      
#> Chinese kite                    
#> Brownie owl                     
#> Hen hurrier                     
#> Grrrr falcon                    
#> Gosh hawk                       
#> Cough                           
#> Flapwing                        
#> Not                             
#> Bar-tailed nitwit               
#> Snoop                           
#> Funny tern                      
#> Cut throat                      
#> Throttled dove                  
#> Ribbon                          
#> Backchat                        
#> Missile thrush                  
#> Cold tit                        
#> Twit                            
#> Yellow spanner                  
#> Born howl             0.98298544