Provides qualitative, diverging and sequential colour schemes.
colour(palette, reverse = FALSE, names = TRUE, lang = "en", force = FALSE, ...) color(palette, reverse = FALSE, names = TRUE, lang = "en", force = FALSE, ...)
character string giving the name of the palette to be
used (see below).
logical scalar: should the resulting vector of colours
should be reversed?
logical scalar: should the names of the colours should be
kept in the resulting vector?
character string specifying the language for the colour
names. It must be one of "
en" (English, the default) or "
logical scalar. If
TRUE, forces the colour scheme to be
interpolated. It should not be used routinely with qualitative colour
schemes, as they are designed to be used as is to remain colorblind-safe.
Further arguments passed to colorRampPalette.
A palette function with the following attributes, that when called with a single integer argument (the number of levels) returns a (named) vector of colors.
character string giving the name of the
character string giving the corresponding
data type. One of "
diverging" or "
logical scalar: can the color palette be
character string giving the the hexadecimal
representation of the color that should be used for
integer giving the maximum number of color values.
Only relevant for non-interpolated color schemes.
For colour schemes that can be interpolated (diverging and sequential data),
the colour range can be limited with an additional argument.
to remove a fraction of the colour domain (before being interpolated; see
The following palettes are available. The maximum number of supported colours is in brackets, this value is only relevant for the qualitative colour schemes (divergent and sequential schemes are linearly interpolated).
high contrast (3),
medium contrast (6),
smooth rainbow (34).
According to Paul Tol's technical note, the
muted colour schemes are colourblind safe. The
medium contrast colour scheme is designed for situations needing colour pairs.
light colour scheme is reasonably distinct for both normal or
colourblind vision and is intended to fill labeled cells.
dark schemes are not very distinct in either normal or
colourblind vision and should be used as a text background or to highlight
a cell in a table.
Refer to the original document for details about the recommended uses (see references).
As a general rule, ordered data should not be represented using a rainbow scheme. There are three main arguments against such use (Tol 2018):
The spectral order of visible light carries no inherent magnitude message.
Some bands of almost constant hue with sharp transitions between them, can be perceived as jumps in the data.
Colour-blind people have difficulty distinguishing some colours of the rainbow.
If such use cannot be avoided, Paul Tol's technical note provides two colour schemes that are reasonably clear in colour-blind vision. To remain colour-blind safe, these two schemes must comply with the following conditions:
This scheme must not be interpolated.
This scheme does not have to be used over the full range.
The following (qualitative) colour scheme is available:
Up to 8 colours.
The following (qualitative) color schemes are available:
International Chronostratigraphic Chart (175 colours).
AVHRR Global Land Cover Classification (14 colours).
FAO Reference Soil Groups (24 colours).
Jones, A., Montanarella, L. & Jones, R. (Ed.) (2005). Soil atlas of Europe. Luxembourg: European Commission, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. 128 pp. ISBN: 92-894-8120-X.
Okabe, M. & Ito, K. (2008). Color Universal Design (CUD): How to Make Figures and Presentations That Are Friendly to Colorblind People. URL: https://jfly.uni-koeln.de/color/.
Tol, P. (2021). Colour Schemes. SRON. Technical Note No. SRON/EPS/TN/09-002, issue 3.2. URL: https://personal.sron.nl/~pault/data/colourschemes.pdf
Other colour palettes:
## Okabe and Ito colour scheme colour("okabe ito")(8) #> #000000 #E69F00 #56B4E9 #009E73 #F0E442 #0072B2 #D55E00 #CC79A7 plot_scheme(colour("okabe ito")(8)) ## Paul Tol's colour schemes ### Qualitative data plot_scheme(colour("bright")(7)) plot_scheme(colour("high contrast")(3)) plot_scheme(colour("vibrant")(7)) plot_scheme(colour("muted")(9)) plot_scheme(colour("medium contrast")(6)) plot_scheme(colour("pale")(6)) plot_scheme(colour("dark")(6)) plot_scheme(colour("light")(9)) ### Diverging data plot_scheme(colour("sunset")(11)) plot_scheme(colour("BuRd")(9)) plot_scheme(colour("PRGn")(9)) ### Sequential data plot_scheme(colour("YlOrBr")(9)) plot_scheme(colour("iridescent")(23)) plot_scheme(colour("discrete rainbow")(14)) plot_scheme(colour("discrete rainbow")(23)) plot_scheme(colour("smooth rainbow")(34)) ## Scientific colour schemes ### Geologic timescale plot_scheme(colour("stratigraphy")(175)) ### AVHRR global land cover classification plot_scheme(colour("land")(14)) ### FAO soil reference groups plot_scheme(colour("soil")(24)) ## Adjust colour levels PRGn <- colour("PRGn") plot_scheme(PRGn(9, range = c(0.5, 1)))