A toolkit for absolute dating and analysis of chronological patterns. This package includes functions for chronological modeling and dating of archaeological assemblages from count data. It allows to compute time point estimates and density estimates of the occupation and duration of an archaeological site. kairos provides methods for:
You can install the released version of kairos from CRAN with:
And the development version from GitHub with:
# install.packages("remotes") remotes::install_github("tesselle/kairos")
kairos only supports dates expressed in CE years (BCE years must be given as negative numbers). All results are rounded to zero decimal places (sub-annual precision does not make sense in most situations). You can change this behavior with
options(kairos.precision = x) (for
x decimal places).
kairos uses a set of S4 classes that represent different special types of matrix. Please refer to the documentation of the arkhe package where these classes are defined.
It assumes that you keep your data tidy: each variable (type/taxa) must be saved in its own column and each observation (sample/case) must be saved in its own row.
## Aoristic Analysis data("zuni", package = "folio") ## Set the start and end dates for each ceramic type dates <- list( LINO = c(600, 875), KIAT = c(850, 950), RED = c(900, 1050), GALL = c(1025, 1125), ESC = c(1050, 1150), PUBW = c(1050, 1150), RES = c(1000, 1200), TULA = c(1175, 1300), PINE = c(1275, 1350), PUBR = c(1000, 1200), WING = c(1100, 1200), WIPO = c(1125, 1225), SJ = c(1200, 1300), LSJ = c(1250, 1300), SPR = c(1250, 1300), PINER = c(1275, 1325), HESH = c(1275, 1450), KWAK = c(1275, 1450) ) ## Keep only assemblages that have a sample size of at least 10 keep <- apply(X = zuni, MARGIN = 1, FUN = function(x) sum(x) >= 10) ## Calculate date ranges for each assemblage span <- apply( X = zuni[keep, ], FUN = function(x, dates) range(unlist(dates[x > 0])), MARGIN = 1, dates = dates ) ## Coerce to data.frame span <- as.data.frame(t(span)) colnames(span) <- c("from", "to") ## Calculate aoristic sum (weights) aorist_weigth <- aoristic(span, step = 50, weight = TRUE) plot(aorist_weigth)
Please note that the kairos project is released with a Contributor Code of Conduct. By contributing to this project, you agree to abide by its terms.
Bellanger, Lise, and Philippe Husi. 2012. “Statistical Tool for Dating and Interpreting Archaeological Contexts Using Pottery.” Journal of Archaeological Science 39 (4): 777–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2011.06.031.
Ratcliffe, Jerry H. 2000. “Aoristic Analysis: The Spatial Interpretation of Unspecific Temporal Events.” International Journal of Geographical Information Science 14 (7): 669–79. https://doi.org/10.1080/136588100424963.
Roberts, John M., Barbara J. Mills, Jeffery J. Clark, W. Randall Haas, Deborah L. Huntley, and Meaghan A. Trowbridge. 2012. “A Method for Chronological Apportioning of Ceramic Assemblages.” Journal of Archaeological Science 39 (5): 1513–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2011.12.022.
South, S. A. 1977. Method and Theory in Historical Archaeology. Studies in Archeology. New York: Academic Press.